Posts Tagged ‘diarchy’

Diarchy — dvivaldystė. Dviejų valdžių buvimas kartu

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarchy

Diarchy (or dyarchy), from the Greek δι- «twice» and αρχια, «rule», is a form of government in which two individuals, the diarchs, are the heads of state. In most diarchies, the diarchs hold their position for life and pass the responsibilities and power of the position to their children or family when they die.

Diarchy is one of the oldest forms of government. Diarchies are known from ancient Sparta, Rome, Carthage as well as from Germanic and Dacian tribes. Several ancient Polynesian societies exhibited a diarchic political structure as well. Ranks in the Inca Empire were structured in moieties, with two occupants of each rank, but with different prestige, one hanan (upper) and one hurin (lower). In modern usage diarchy means a system of dual rule, whether this be of a government or of an organisation. Such 'diarchies' are not hereditary.

Examples of modern forms are the governments of San Marino, Andorra and Northern Ireland. The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of British India prescribed a «dyarchy» of ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature[1] The Australian Defence Organisation operates as a diarchy. San Marino is the most ancient of the two present countries that retain two diarchs, the Captains Regent, as heads of state. Andorra is the other country that retains two diarchs, known as Co-Princes.

Lithuanian monarchs

The Lithuanian Grand Dukes typically selected submonarchs from their families or loyal subjects to assist controlling the Grand Duchy. However, the Grand Dukes remained superior.

A slightly different system developed for a brief period after Vytautas became Grand Duke, where nominally Vytautas ruled together with Jogaila, who took the title of aukščiausiasis kunigaikštis (Supreme Duke), but he has not once used the title to take any action, and in general the powers invested in the title were not clearly stated in any documents, besides the Pact of Horodlo, which guaranteed that Jogaila would have to approve the selection of a Lithuanian Grand Duke. The title was not used by any other king of Poland after Jogaila.




Diana — Čigonų siūlas




Arvydo rankos pasirodė visiems žinomoje Omnitel reklamoje

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